Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-02-19T12:06:20+05:00 Dr. Saqib Mahmood Open Journal Systems <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Social Sciences Review (PSSR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PSSR is a <strong>Triple-Blinded peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> Crafting Perspectives: Decline of Local Handicrafts in Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2023-12-10T14:14:09+05:00 Suraya Shahab Habib Ullah Nawab Jahan ul Mulk <p>This study examines the decline of local crafts and its impact in the District of Upper Chitral, Pakistan. Utilising Anthony Gidden's theories outlined in his book 'The Consequences of Modernity' as a foundation, this analysis investigates the impact of contemporary marketing strategies employed by brand capitalists on consumer behaviour, resulting in a significant decrease in local handicrafts and folk culture. This research article examines the socio-economic factors contributing to the decline of handicrafts using a quantitative approach. The findings of the study reveal a complex relationship between the likeness of modern industrial products and, and the decline of traditional indigenous crafts. The factors that contribute to this decline include, a lack of infrastructure, and a shift towards other careers, several factors contribute to this decline, including inadequate infrastructure, a shift towards other careers, lower production, and fading interest among younger generations. Some of the significant challenges that female workers face are limited marketing opportunities and a lack of recognition for their handmade work. Therefore it is recommended that accessible exhibition centres be established. Promotion of marketing strategies for artisans and to promote entrepreneurship among illiterate women interested in handicrafts. The ultimate goal is to revitalise and protect traditional handicrafts, preserve cultural heritage, and enhance the skills of artisans in District Upper Chitral. Overall, the study emphasizes the importance of protecting traditional handicrafts from the impact of modern branding. It emphasises the need for specific actions to aid in the revival of these traditional crafts.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Implementing Artificial Intelligence (AI) into the Judicial System in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities 2023-12-17T16:42:48+05:00 Umair Ahmed Zaryab Fatima Touqeer Abbas <p>This study examines the various ways in which Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) has been incorporated into the European legal system. It includes an analysis of past trends, legal frameworks, the role of artificial intelligence in criminal justice, and the significant difficulties it presents. AI has the potential to improve productivity, lessen prejudices, and offer insights. But there are a lot of moral and legal issues. This study is noteworthy because it emphasizes the necessity of thorough inspections and legal frameworks to guarantee compliance with legal requirements and human rights. The A.I. Act proposal from the European Union is shown to be a crucial initiative. The evolution of A.I. integration is illustrated by tracing its historical background. The legal framework is examined, covering GDPR and basic rights. There are identified challenges, including data privacy, complex legal issues, and a lack of technical expertise. The study highlights how crucial it is to deal with these issues in order to use artificial intelligence (AI) responsibly within the framework of European law.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Flexible Scheduling, Perceived Organizational Support and Employees’ Organizational Commitment: Mediation of Job Satisfaction 2023-12-18T12:33:26+05:00 Raja Rafaqat Ajaib Ghulam Mujtaba Zafar Iqbal <p>This study examined the role of flexible scheduling and perceived organizational support in organizational commitment of employees. The study also probed the mediating role of job satisfaction in the specified association. For this purpose, the study applied continence sampling technique and selected a sample from the universities of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Primary data were collected from the respondents through a mailed questionnaire. The researchers selected 80 participants from each university and distributed the questionnaires accordingly. 312 completely filled questionnaires were used for analysis purposes. Data analysis was completed by using SPSS and AMOS. After examining the basic statistics, the study examined the effect of each independent variable on dependent variable of organizational commitment. The study then applied Hayes (2013) model to check the mediation of job satisfaction. The results showed a positive role of flexible scheduling and perceived organizational support in organizational commitment of employees, which was fully mediated by the job satisfaction. Based on findings, the study suggested for adoption of flexible working hours policy and high support to the employees for better contributions and well-being of the individuals and institutions.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Boosting Shareholder Value: The Impact of Green Bonds on Equity Markets 2023-12-23T10:10:41+05:00 Ume Salma Akbar Niaz Ahmed Bhutto Naseer Ullah Khan <p>The study empirically investigates the impact of green bonds issuance on listed firms operating in G7 (Japan, UK, USA, France, Germany, Italy, and Canada) economies. The sample consist of monthly data ranges from January 2015 to August 2022. Green bonds issuance data is collected from announcements, press releases, and semi-annual or yearly reports. Additionally, we use the official websites and credit rating agency portals of the particular country to find debt issuance. The subsequent findings imply that the issuance of green bonds cast a positive impact on shareholder wealth maximization moreover, sustainable financing practice increases firm value in a long run and thus is favored by shareholders.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Social Sciences Review A Narratological Analysis of Mood, Voice and Tense in Herman Hesse's Siddhartha 2023-12-29T17:02:14+05:00 Rafia Khan Maria Ghani Muhammad Ajmal <p>In this study, a narratological investigation of Hermann Hesse's novel Siddartha is executed by applying Gerard Genette's narrative structure theory. This study is the analysis of the narrative structure of Siddartha with Genette's three narrative dimensions namely voice, mood, and tense. This qualitative research explores Hesse's genius in handling the narrative form. In the novel, Siddhartha's voice which denotes "Who speaks" is an authoritative heterodiegetic third-person unknown narrator. The subjective narrator made use of past and future tense in the narration. The novel Siddhartha follows a chronological order without any flashbacks or flashforward. The journey protagonist Siddhartha is chased from youth to old age. The dimension that received the most importance is focalization which is perceived as internal focalization as the the point of view is shared by both the narrator and character in the novel. The discussion includes issues such as finding the exact duration of the events. The overall outer appearance shows that the duration of the novel is summary. A pause also occurred to increase the intensity of the situation. It is concluded that Hesse's novel is an impressive piece of writing that uses the narrative structure to increase the reader's understanding. Genette's theory illustrates how this analysis enriches the knowledge of the novel Siddhartha.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Shocks in Aggregate Demand to Monetary and Fiscal Policies’ Adjustment in Nigeria: A Simulation Approach 2024-01-01T11:18:13+05:00 Titus Wuyah Yunana <p>The study examined the shocks in aggregate demand to monetary and fiscal policies adjustment in Nigeria using time series annual data from 1986-2022. The study used secondary data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigerian (CBN) Annual Statistical Bulletin, National Bureau of Statistics NBS), and World Bank Financial Report. The study constructs simple structural macroeconomic models made up of three blocks: consumption, investment, and export-import sector that contain 21 variables. The variables are linked to one another through 8 behavioural equations and 4 identities. The models were estimated and analyzed using Two Stage Least Square methods and a simulation experiment was also conducted on the simple structural macroeconomics models. The study finds that broad money supply, interest rate, government expenditure, taxation and public debt have significant influence on aggregated demand in Nigeria during the period under investigation. The baseline simulation demonstrates good tracking power of the actual from the baseline simulation as the nature of the oscillation suggested. The study, recommends that the government should encourage expansionary monetary and fiscal policies by lowering interest rate in order to encourage investors to borrow for investment.</p> 2024-01-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Effect of Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Primary School Teachers on their Achievement in Pedagogy 2024-01-02T18:34:26+05:00 Muhammad Akram Muhammad Irfan Malik Saira Zafar <p>This study was conducted to find out the effect of pedagogical content knowledge training on primary school teachers’ achievement in pedagogy. Pedagogical skills involve different methods of teaching which can be used effectively according to the need of the learners. The researchers used one group pre-test post-test experimental design to conduct pedagogical content knowledge related training of 40 hours for 140 teachers, clustered into 5 groups, and measure achievement scores of the subject in the area of pedagogy before and after the training. Pedagogical training related module was developed by an independent expert of the pedagogy. The study used descriptive as well as inferential statistics to analyze the data. Findings of the study revealed significant mean difference in achievement scores on the pretest and posttests of these teachers. The study recommends to conduct pedagogy related professional development trainings for primary school teachers to enhance their capabilities and pedagogical skills.</p> 2024-01-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Effect of Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth in Nigeria 1981–2022 2024-01-07T17:49:22+05:00 Olubunmi Solomon Ishaya John Mailamba <p>This study investigates the effect of agricultural foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth proxy by agricultural GDP in Nigeria between 1981 and 2022. Through a review of the literature, the impacts of agricultural FDI on economic growth in Nigeria are identified. Economic data including agricultural gross domestic product (GDP), agricultural foreign direct investment, exchange rate and inflation rate are collected to determine the extent to which agricultural FDI has influenced economic growth in the country. Descriptive and econometric analyses are conducted to draw conclusions regarding the effects of agricultural FDI on economic growth in Nigeria. The results suggest that agricultural FDI in the have driven economic growth, with a positive and significant influence on GDP growth. Specifically, the results indicate that 1% increase in agricultural FDI is associated with a 0.051% increase in GDP growth. In conclusion, FDI in the agricultural sector has a substantial impact on economic growth in Nigeria and should be encouraged by policy makers in order to achieve higher GDP growth rates.</p> 2024-01-07T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Grades and Glory: A Qualitative Investigation into Business Program’s Academic Success at Public Sector University 2024-01-08T17:52:25+05:00 Nabeel Nisar Touseef Hussain Ghumro Pashmina Nisar Pathan <p>The research aims to explore the perspective of outstanding learners of the business administration department of a public sector university. The study delves into the factors influencing academic success, the learning methodologies employed by students in the pursuit of excellence, and the significance of grades in shaping their academic journeys. This study involved a qualitative case study approach by using in-depth interviews with six students who attained higher academic standing, providing insights into their distinct opinions and experiences. The results depict a positive influence between students' academic performance and their approach to learning. The study emphasizes the public university's proactive encouragement for students to aim for higher grades, aligning with broader trends in academic institutions. The evolving industrial landscape amplifies the demand for skilled professionals, prompting business schools to underpin the importance of academic achievement. The findings emphasize the dedication of business administration department students to maintaining high grades and actively enhancing their proficiency.</p> 2024-01-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review The Drivers of Brand Equity: Brand Image, Satisfaction and Trust 2024-01-10T11:35:37+05:00 Ume Salma Akbar Sarwar M Azhar <p>This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between brand image, brand trust, brand satisfaction and brand equity. The study is based on primary data collected through questionnaire-based survey. Convenient sampling technique is used and a sample of 278 was selected in this study. Reliability and normality test (Cronbach Alpha = 0.674; significant values of Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk) were used prior to the testing of hypothesis. Based on normality tests results, non-parametric correlation (Spearman's rho) test was conducted to test the hypothesis. It was found that brand trust, brand image and brand satisfaction are the significant factors of the brand equity. The descriptive statistics of mobile cell phone brands showed that major market share is captured by the Nokia (68%) and remaining share is captured by the rest of the brands in available in the market of mobile cell phones in Sukkur region. Based on findings of the study, it is suggested to the strategic policy makers in the mobile cell phone companies to heavily emphasize on the improvement of these three basic determinants in cutthroat competition in cell phone industry.&nbsp;</p> 2024-01-09T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Geo-Political Dimension and CPEC: Implications for South Asia 2024-01-13T16:27:39+05:00 Muhammad Sohail Khan Saidullah Kamran Ferdos Jamal <p>The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a significant development in South Asia, enhancing economic ties between China and Pakistan. It involves energy projects and infrastructure development, fostering collaboration and altering power balances among neighboring nations. The CPEC's dual nature, involving economic interests, security considerations, and geopolitical alliances, shapes the future of South Asian geopolitics, promoting competition and cooperation. Emphasizes the geostrategic dimensions of CPEC and its implications for the region, Further this study Analyse the CPEC and Convergence among the South Asian States This paper, drawing on qualitative data from diverse secondary sources. It is concluded that the CPEC's success could significantly impact South Asia's economic and geopolitical landscape by fostering regional cooperation and competition, potentially influencing the region's larger dynamics. Advocating for a comprehensive partnership, the study suggests that transparent implementation and inclusive policies involving all stakeholders can positively impact the economic conditions of Pakistan and the broader South Asian region, promoting recovery and cooperation amidst regional challenges.</p> 2024-01-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Examine the Level of Awareness about differentiated Instructions among Special Education Teachers 2024-01-15T13:21:45+05:00 Asifa Rashid Afaf Manzoor Muhammad Usman Khalid <p>This study aims to investigate the awareness and understanding of special education teachers regarding differentiated instruction (DI) to accommodate diverse learners. The research explores the awareness levels based on gender and qualifications. Utilizing the Differentiated Instruction Scale (DIS), the study surveyed 201 special education teachers in Punjab through online means. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for analysis. Results indicate a balanced distribution of gender and a majority holding master's degrees. The approach is grounded in a Vygotsky (1962) socio-cultural theory of learning emphasizes on learners specific context that is triggered through social interaction. The study identified no significant gender-based differences in awareness, and qualification-based distinctions were negligible. The teachers demonstrated varying levels of proficiency in DI strategies, with high awareness in providing additional support and planning alternative tasks. However, moderate awareness was observed in areas like using student data for decision-making and adapting evaluation methods. The findings suggest that while special education teachers possess substantial awareness of DI, further training may enhance their ability to address diverse student needs effectively.</p> 2024-01-15T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Translation and Dissemination of Buddhist Texts in China: Centered On Jatakas 2024-01-23T11:12:57+05:00 Xue Chennan Tahir Mahmood <p>Two routes of diffusion emerged during the height of the translation and dissemination of Chinese Buddhist sutras, from the Wei, Jin, Southern, and Northern Dynasties to the Tang Dynasty: the translation of elite Buddhism and the popularization of folk Buddhism. The Collection of the Six Perfections, a model for the translation works, introduced Buddhism into China by interpreting traditional Buddhist texts through the lens of Confucian philosophy. The Jataka stories were also associated with the spread of folk Buddhism, which preached to the public in a way that was seen as acceptable. These two paths enhanced one another and paved the way for the growth of Buddhism and the Jatakas in China. The appropriate method for this research study are the qualitative research techniques and the field work method. The results of article show the Buddhists texts in China were translated which were made localized to disseminate it according to the Chinese society.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Exploring Modern Nation-state Language Planning from the perspective of the Covid-19: A Case Study of Pakistan and China 2024-01-23T11:15:02+05:00 Wang Tianyi Mahboob Hussain <p>Since the beginning of 2020, the Covid-19 pandemic has brought to light the issue of linguistic barriers within many national cultures, and multilingual crisis communication has become an international concern. The objective reality of language diversity has not been methodically included into crisis management and emergency preparedness plans. The inattention to linguistic diversity has resulted under challenges for ethnic minorities around the globe to obtain timely and useful information, so compromising the efficacy of emergency response to an outbreak. 'Marginalized' populations are frequently most severely and directly impacted negatively by language and communication obstacles. The development of multilingual societies and language planning in the two nations following their establishment are reviewed in this article, which also examines the significance of multinational languages in the language planning process in both nations. In order to inform and advise the two countries on the development of sound language policies and operational mechanisms for managing language resources and constructing a community of human destiny, it also makes an effort to explore, through the case of the multilingual crisis, the various factors that influenced the formulation and adjustment of language policies in the two countries. It also highlights the treatment of internal diversity, especially linguistic diversity, in the mid- to late 20th century as the two countries were transforming into modern states. The methodological approach is qualitative which more focuses on the documented primary and secondary sources.</p> 2024-01-22T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Effect of Lesson Planning on Academic Performance: Evidence from the Elementary Level Classroom 2024-01-30T10:59:25+05:00 Sadia Khan Darakhshan Siraj Zaeeda Ilyas <p>This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of lesson planning on the performance of elementary school students. The research focused specifically on class 8th students in the subject of English. The chosen research design was experimental, employing pre-test post-test control group design. This design allowed for the measurement and observation of both the groups experimental and control before and after exposure to a treatment. The population of the study included all students enrolled at Government Girls Middle School Koteri Qandeel Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. A sample of forty students was selected for the study, with twenty students assigned to each of the two groups. The data collection process involved conducting pre and post-tests in the classroom, administered before and after the intervention. Data was analyzed using independent and paired sample t-test. The findings revealed a significant and positive effect of lesson planning on the academic performance of students. These results have important implications for educators, policymakers, and curriculum developers, emphasizing the critical role of effective lesson planning in enhancing students' academic achievements at the elementary level. By implementing well-structured and engaging lesson plans, educators can optimize teaching and learning experiences, leading to improved educational outcomes. The findings highlight the importance of incorporating comprehensive lesson planning strategies in curriculum design and instructional practices. Future research should further explore the long-term effects of lesson planning on academic performance, considering diverse subjects and student populations. By embracing evidence-based practices, educators can continue to enhance teaching methods and foster academic progress among elementary school students. This research study was conducted at Government Girls Middle School Tangyat district Bagh</p> 2024-01-29T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review The Filming and Impact of the "Shaolin Temple" Movie (1982) 2024-01-30T11:52:41+05:00 Tian Chong <p>As a unique genre in Chinese cinema, Shaolin films have gained recognition worldwide. This article explores the essence of Shaolin films and, based on this exploration, introduces the background and filming process of the 1982 version of the movie "Shaolin Temple." By comparing real historical events at Shaolin Temple with the film's narrative, the article delves into the significant impact the movie has had both domestically in China and on the international stage. The main objective of this research article is to trace out the impacts of Shaolin Temple movie on different aspects of society and the culture. The methodological approach of this research article is based on the both the documents and the visual description which are obtained through different sources. The sources utilized for this research article are both in the form of primary and secondary sources. The results of the shows that the Shaolin films have greatly affected the society both in China and internationally which can be taken as a model for the development of the films in distinctive spaces. This is essential develop a new mode in the formation of films and their recognition.</p> 2024-01-30T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Gamification in Higher Education: A Literature Review 2024-01-31T11:29:58+05:00 Aribah Saleem Bilal Mirza <p>The contemporary educational landscape has witnessed a transformative shift away from traditional teaching methods in higher education. The primary objective of this literature review is to critically examine the gamification elements employed in higher education, seeking to understand their potential contributions to interactive and engaging learning environments. By synthesizing existing research, the study aims to identify key insights into the application of gamification in fostering ongoing connections between learners and academicians. The methodology used was a systematic literature review utilizing articles on gamification in higher education sourced from reputable databases such as Scopus and Google Scholar. The methodology involved a rigorous search process to identify relevant studies, followed by a thorough analysis of the selected articles to extract insights into the gamification elements, components, dynamics, and mechanics employed in higher education settings. The findings of the literature review highlight the positive impact of gamification components on higher education institutions (HEIs). By incorporating gamification, HEIs can create interactive and engaging learning environments that facilitate meaningful connections between learners and academicians. The integration of game-like elements enhances student motivation, participation, and collaboration, contributing to a more dynamic educational experience. Based on the results, it is recommended that higher education institutions consider the strategic implementation of gamification elements in their pedagogical approaches. Educators and administrators should explore innovative ways to incorporate gamified components into curricula to enhance student engagement and foster a more collaborative learning environment.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Beyond the Classroom: Mapping the Terrain of High School Achievement through Student-Teacher Interactions, Socioeconomic Realities, and School Facilities 2024-02-01T18:39:29+05:00 Muhammad Shahzad Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar Sajid Mahmood Sajid <p>In the complex terrain of high school education, it is critical to comprehend the elements that greatly influence academic achievement. This study evaluated the impact of student-teacher interaction, socioeconomic status, and facilities at school on the academic achievement of high school students. The cross-sectional and quantitative research design was employed. Multistage and proportionate sampling techniques were used. 280 respondents were selected using these techniques from public sector high schools in Faisalabad. Data were collected using a questionnaire having the key study variables. The collected data was analysed with IBM SPSS for windows (27 edition). Descriptive, correlational, and multiple regression analyses were utilised to evaluate the impact of student-teacher interaction, socioeconomic status, and facilities at school on the academic achievement of high school students. The findings of the study show that student-teacher interaction, socioeconomic status, and facilities at school significantly positively impact academic achievement. The study underscores the importance of positive interaction between students and teachers, socioeconomic parity, and school infrastructure in optimizing academic achievement. Policy recommendations for educational leaders, policymakers, and administrators are also discussed.</p> 2024-02-01T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Identity Politics and Regional Dynamics: The OIC as a Nexus of Muslim Unity and Diversity 2024-02-01T22:34:03+05:00 Syed Rizwan Haider Bukhari Amir Ullah Khan Inam Ul Haq <p>This objective of this study paper is to examine the Identity Politics and Regional Dynamics of OIC and its impact on the nexus of Muslim unity and Diversity. This research is qualitative in nature. Since its inception, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) has encountered substantial criticism regarding its perceived inability to effectively address the challenges facing Muslim nations and unite the Ummah under a common platform. This paper aims to analyze the OIC's past performance, emphasizing its weaknesses and shortcomings, and proposes viable measures to enhance its efficacy as a global entity The research technique employed is through Qualitative Research Approach through Interpretive Research Technique with Content Thematic Analysis covering Historical and Contextual Synthesis and Interpretation. This research can further be analyzed by applying different theories of political philosophers according to the Demands of Muslim States from OIC in geo politics. The detailed data has been analyzed.The paper is structured to comprehensively explore the subject matter. Beginning with an examination of the genesis of the OIC, it proceeds to dissect the OIC Charter before delving into the identification of future challenges confronting the organization. Through meticulous analysis, the paper elucidates major weaknesses observed over time and offers succinct recommendations aimed at addressing these issues. The recommendations put forth are intended to bolster the OIC's institutional framework and equip it to confront the evolving needs of the next half-century. By providing a strategic roadmap for reform and renewal, we believe that the OIC can emerge as a stronger, more responsive organization capable of safeguarding the interests and promoting the well-being of Muslim nations worldwide.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Analyzing the Social Media Usage and Narcissism among Youth in Pakistan 2024-02-04T13:15:07+05:00 Muhammad Manshoor Hussain Abbasi Rimsha Aslam Syed Shams ul Hassan <p>The objective of this research is to analyze the link between social media and narcissistic tendencies in Pakistani youth by analyzing approval-seeking behaviours, peer comparisons, and positive feedback. This study analyzes how social media influences the development of narcissistic tendencies in young Pakistanis. A purposively selected sample of participants was interviewed in semi-structured interviews as part of the data-gathering process for this qualitative study. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze semi-structured interviews. The results identified a direct link between narcissistic traits and the desire for social media acceptance. Positive online feedback boosts self-esteem but may lead to increased self-focus. To address the influence of social media on narcissistic tendencies in young people in Pakistan, it is recommended to implement specific interventions, enhanced digital literacy, and mental health support programs.</p> 2024-02-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Exploring the Nexus: A Correlation Analysis of Motivational Orientations and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents 2024-02-12T12:21:53+05:00 Iqra Ramzan Madiha Azam Sidra Shoaib <p>The study aimed to explore the relationship between psychological well-being and motivational goal orientations of secondary school students. The primary objective was to investigate the association between various dimensions of psychological well-being and motivational goal orientations. Adolescence is linked with the development of goals, consequently shaping achievement motivation of adolescents. the inclination to define goals and success is influenced by various factors i.e. wellbeing. Grounded in literature, the study hypothesized significant associations between psychological well-being and motivational goal orientations. 125 secondary school students aged 12 to 18 years recruited from two schools in Karachi. Data was gathered on motivational orientations and psychological well-being by using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich &amp; Garcia, 1991) and the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1989). The analysis focused on exploring correlations between these variables. The results suggested that there is a significantly weak positive correlation between positive-relations and self-acceptance with different motivational goal orientations. The findings reflects that Motivational Goal Orientation is somewhat related to the Psychological well-being As highlighted by the study, educators and counselors should prioritize cultivating intrinsic and task-oriented motivational goal orientations in secondary school students which will enhance their psychological well-being.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-11T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Promoting Tolerance and Harmony: Lessons from the Shared Sacred Space of Jhule Lal/ Udero Lal in Sindh, Pakistan 2024-02-12T12:24:38+05:00 Muhbat Ali Shah Muhammad Shahban Sahito <p>This research paper explores the phenomenon of shared sacred spaces as a means of fostering tolerance and harmony within diverse communities. Specifically, it examines into the case study of Udero Lal, a revered shrine located in Sindh, Pakistan, where people of various religious and cultural backgrounds converge to pay homage and seek blessings. Through a multidisciplinary approach encompassing ethnographic fieldwork, historical analysis, and interviews with local stakeholders, this study examines the mechanisms that facilitate interfaith coexistence and peaceful interactions within this sacred site. The findings of this research highlight the significance of shared sacred spaces in promoting religious pluralism, social cohesion, and mutual respect among different religious communities. Moreover, it emphasizes the potential of such spaces to serve as models for conflict resolution and peace building in regions marked by religious diversity and historical tensions. The study contributes to academic discussions about religious studies and conflict resolution, but it also offers practical advice for policymakers, community leaders, and religious institutions seeking to use shared sacred spaces to promote tolerance and harmony.</p> 2024-02-11T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Translanguaging as a tool to Decolonize English Language Teaching in Pakistan: Opportunities and Challenges 2024-02-12T12:27:51+05:00 Imran Ali Muhammad Umer Azim Attiq Ur Rehman <p>The study aims to highlight Pedagogical Translanguaging as a decolonizing tool for the 2nd language English learners in Pakistani academia. Firstly, it explored the opportunities given to students and teachers to exercise translanguaging as a pedagogy in English language teaching (ELT) to promote cultural heterogeneity. Secondly, it uncovered the challenges faced by students and teachers to implement translanguaging as a decolonizing tool to counter imperialistic English language teaching practices. Thirdly, it concluded that translanguaging may prove an effective teaching methodology to make students more confident to use their linguistic repertoire in the 2nd language English learning classrooms. Following a quantitative research methodology, the data were collected through a Google Form from the students of public sector universities. Later, the obtained data were analyzed through SPSS to see the descriptive value of the variables. Consequently, this study recommends translanguaging for the promotion of multilingual identities in the global world.</p> 2024-02-11T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Effects of Bank Lending Channel on Emerging Market Economies: Empirical Evidence from Capital Market Sector 2024-02-12T12:30:27+05:00 Syed Muhammad Shuja Fayaz Hussain Tunio Agha Amad Nabi <p>This research aims to investigate the effects of the bank lending channel of monetary policy on capital markets in seventeen emerging market economies, which are comprised of bank-level data from 5589 banks and 76518 observations within the sample period from 2006 to 2021. This research concentrates on the bank lending channel because of the significant effect that banks have on the economy and financial markets. While monetary policy is vital and has various transmission channels into the actual economy, the bank lending channel will therefore, be the primary focus of this study. The study utilizes a dynamic panel model with sys-GMM and fixed effect model along with performing robustness checks, firstly by performing instrumental variable regressions and secondly by taking higher lags from the data sample. Among the countries included in the study, monetary policy has a negative impact on bank lending, while economic growth has a positive effect, according to the financial development indicators. The study findings suggest that the bank lending channel influences the capital markets.</p> 2024-02-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Academic Libraries Emerging Trends in 21st Century: A Systematic Review 2024-02-12T17:43:53+05:00 Nadia Kiran Tariq Aziz Ajab Ali Lashari <p>The purpose of this research is to explore the recent developments and trends that are being used in libraries of academic institutions. The term “emerging trends” often brings to mind some basic IT-supported devices &amp; services, but its scope extends beyond that. The rapid advancement in IT and its implication in libraries have reshaped the entire library operations. This study was conducted not only to discover these changes but to provide an overview of the obstacles faced by libraries and potential remedies to overcome them. The qualitative content analysis method was undertaken, following the PRISMA guidelines a total of 32 open-access research articles were examined that satisfied the inclusion criteria. On a similar basis, three research questions were formulated. The finding revealed that Internet of Things, Information Communication Technologies, and Artificial Intelligence have an impact on emerging trends in academic libraries that evolved the traditional library practices, but unskilled professionals, financial constraints, and inappropriate infrastructure are the main hurdles that academic libraries have been facing to employee current trends that can be overcome through staff training &amp; development, careful planning of infrastructure and adequate funding. It is recommended that IT-integrated gadgets including RFID, Integrated library Management System should be used effectively to enhance library services, and academic libraries.</p> 2024-02-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Opportunities for Pakistan 2024-02-13T13:42:19+05:00 Mehran Khan Ferdos Jamal <p>This research paper explores Pakistan's potential advantages within the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). It focuses on three main areas: energy sector collaboration, economic cooperation, and joint military exercises. The paper uses qualitative research methodology to provide a comprehensive overview of the opportunities the SCO presents for Pakistan. It suggests that Pakistan can harness economic, security, and diplomatic benefits through increased trade, infrastructure development, and regional cooperation, provided it engages proactively and aligns with SCO objectives. The paper also highlights the strategic implications of joint military exercises between Pakistan and SCO member states, addressing shared security concerns. The paper offers valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders interested in promoting regional cooperation. By recommendations, Pakistan can further leverage its membership in the SCO to realize the full spectrum of opportunities for socioeconomic growth and regional cooperation, contributing to a more integrated and prosperous Eurasian region</p> 2024-02-12T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review English Literature Teachers' Views on Lexical Choices, Syntax, and Morphology in Creative Writing in Pakistan 2024-02-15T11:07:25+05:00 Amna Shahid Humaira Irfan Muqaddas Butt <p>The paper explores the perception of English literature teachers about the use of unique lexical, syntactical structures and morphological variations in creative writing. The data were collected from the semi-structured interviews with 26 English Literature teachers from public and private universities in Pakistan. The findings explicitly reveal a diverse understanding of Pakistani literature teachers' perspectives on creative writing. Despite varying opinions, there are common perceptions, emphasizing creative writing as a space for imagination, self-expression, and emotion. Language choices, including word selection and sentence structures, play a pivotal role in shaping narratives and evoking mood and atmosphere in the text. Pakistani creative writers contribute cultural elements and enrich their work with Urdu words. Creative writing significantly influences Pakistani English and serve as a powerful means of expressing cultural identity. The study recommends implementation of teacher development programs to enhance creative writing skills among students and foster collaborative idea-sharing. Additionally, it advocates for integrating creative writing into standard curricula to promote diversity and preserve cultural identity through the use of unique lexes, syntactical structures and morphological variations. Lastly, the recommendation includes promoting a student-centric approach through personalized feedback, imaginative assignments, and creative writing competitions for motivation and recognition.</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Role of Situational Crisis Communication Theory in Telecommunication Crises: An Analysis 2024-02-14T17:38:36+05:00 Hiba Dawood Ali <p>Telecommunications companies are encountering a growing array of crises. The Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) offers a framework that takes into account the specific context of a crisis. Thus, the main objective of the study was to review the crisis communication plans for effective use of SCCT principals. The study was descriptive in nature so the qualitative in approach was used. The sample size was four public relations officers from telecommunication companies. The semi-structured interview was conducted. These interviews followed a protocol containing open-ended questions about crisis management strategies and work experiences. Collected data was analyzed by using the content analysis. The findings reveal notable variations in crisis communication strategies among the selected companies. Some organizations adopt a proactive and transparent approach, providing regular updates while others exhibit a more reactive and defensive stance, leading to potential reputational damage. The recommendations of the study were to emphasize the importance of aligning crisis communication efforts with organizational values and maintaining transparency.</p> 2024-02-14T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review The Stability of Pakistan Economy and IMF Deals: An Analysis 2024-02-15T11:54:19+05:00 Nouman Faraz Khan Amber Zahra Jawad Khan <p>This study examined the time series analysis of the Stability of Pakistan Economy and IMF Deals" from 1992 to 2021. The data utilized in this research is secondary, and we gather it from the source’s World Bank and Economics survey of Pakistan. Logistic regression and Autoregressive distribution lags methods applied to determine the economic factors compelling Pakistan to continue relying on the IMF and establish a link between IMF loans and Pakistan's economy. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Imports to Exports Ratio (IMPEX), Reserves (RES), Current account balance (CUR), Total debt service (TDS), Primary Deficit (PD), Government final consumption expenditure (GOV), Tax revenue (TR) and Governance (AVGGI) has been statistically significant impact on the IMF deals with Pakistan government in logistic regression model and Autoregressive distribution lags ARDL. We find that policy actions to increase tax revenue, decrease government expenditures, decrease imports, the exports ratio and adjust the exchange rate are essential considerations.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Effects of Negative Body Images on Social Media among Youth in Pakistan 2024-02-15T18:19:43+05:00 Muhammad Manshoor Hussain Abbasi Faiqa Khan Matiullah Khan <p>This study investigates the effect of negative body image on social media among youth, utilizing semi-structured interviews with influencers, psychologists, youth, and social media managers. Negative body image is the subjective perception of one's body as flawed or undesirable, often leading to feelings of dissatisfaction and distress. The primary objective is to understand the multifaceted nature of negative body image exacerbated by extensive social media exposure. Key questions revolve around societal and governmental responsibilities, the promotion of natural beauty, and the effectiveness of support systems. Twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with diverse participants. Thematic analysis was employed to extract insights into the complexities of negative body image. The study acknowledges the limitations of sample size and potential theme overlap while recognizing the strength of its diverse participant pool. The findings underscore the adverse mental health effects linked to pervasive social media usage. Women are predominantly affected, but men are increasingly vulnerable. The study emphasizes the necessity for nuanced interventions to address these challenges effectively. The study advocates for comprehensive support systems to promote youth self-acceptance in the digital age. It highlights the importance of societal and governmental roles in fostering a culture that promotes natural beauty and healthy body image perceptions.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Exploring the Nexus: School Climate Dynamics and Academic Attainment in Secondary Education across Punjab 2024-02-17T20:26:14+05:00 Maqsood Ahmad Saima Khawaja Hisham Ul Hassan <p>This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the overall school environment and the academic accomplishments of students and to discern the influence of the school atmosphere on the academic success of students. This study uses a descriptive and quantitative research design. Data was collected through simple random sampling technique and Survey method was used, Data collection involved visiting schools, obtaining permissions, and administering the questionnaire to students. The results were then analyzed using SPSS, confirming the instrument's reliability. Questionnaires were filled by 260 secondary school students. The table 3 indicates a very high correlation between the availability of adequate toilets in the school compound and several key variables related to the school environment and administration. The correlation is very high (.964) with students' active participation in extracurricular activities, security (.956), Empathetic Administration (.958) and Cooperative Administration (.979). Results showed a significant positive impact of school climate, amenities, Extra-curricular activities, administration, security systems, and parent-teacher meetings on student achievements. This study recommends to conduct awareness Programs, Infrastructure up-gradation, Inclusive Facility Planning, Regular Feedback Mechanisms, Equality in Participation (participation in extra-curricular activities), and Collaboration with Parents.</p> 2024-02-17T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Empowering Women: Navigating the Workplace Challenges with Strength and Resilience 2024-02-17T23:34:44+05:00 Shahid Kalim Khan Fasiha Altaf Sana Khan <p>The objective of the current study was to find out the personal, family and social challenges faced by married working women in district Lahore, Pakistan. The present study employed a phenomenological research design to understand the problems faced by working married women. The paradigm of the research was interpretivism. The interpretivist perspective holds that there is more than one reality; rather, they believe that there are multiple realities. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the sample for the present study. An interview protocol was prepared by the researchers after reviewing the literature review in order to conduct interviews. The six women from diverse fields of profession were selected by using purposive sampling technique. The thematic analysis approach was used to analyzed the data. The findings of the study showed that challenges faced by working married women in Pakistani society include work-life balance disputes, isolation, security concerns, safety issues, neglecting children, long working hours, and mental health problems. On the basis of results, it was recommended that media may increase public awareness and consciousness regarding women's rights in order to eradicate problems that affect working women.</p> 2024-02-17T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Resilience among University Students at Undergraduate Level 2024-02-17T23:37:25+05:00 Mahvish Fatima Kashif Maria Nasir Faiza Shaheen <p>This study was an attempt to explore the effect of emotional intelligence on resilience among undergraduate students. As the study was quantitative in nature, casual comparative research design was used. The population of the study was undergraduate students in the education department of the public and private universities in Lahore. Total population was 2688 students, 802 from private and 1886 from public universities. Sample of 538 respondents was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. The strata were formed on the basis of nature of the institution (public vs. private). The instrument consisted of three parts: first part comprised of demographic information (gender, institute type, name of the university). The second part consisted of Emotional Intelligence Scale, develop by Schutte (1998), which contained 33 items. The third part consisted of Resilience Scale develop by Wagnild and Young, (1993), that contains 25 items. Data was collected individually from participants through questionnaire by survey method. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the effect between variables. An independent t-test was applied to determine the difference between the two groups such as public vs. private and male vs. female. Results showed that emotional intelligence has a significant effect on resilience. It was recommended to develop educational programs that helps youth improve their emotional intelligence and resilience.</p> 2024-02-17T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Frankenstein: Eco-Cultural and Feminine-Self 2024-02-17T23:40:26+05:00 Yumna Khatoon <p>The basic objective of the current research is to analyze the Eco-cultural and feminine self in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818). The novel is significant to highlight the gender construction through scientific salvation and technological penetration to challenge the male dominancy on female hood as submissive, passive and possessable creature. The novel speculates over the drastic effects of declining the value of reproduction naturally by creating a monster. The Separate Sphere Theory is applied to the text which would help the literary students to understand the interconnectedness of women and nature. The research is qualitative in approach to get the desired results to show women’s suppression, humiliation and decentralization through opening the channels of cyborgs in the contemporary world.</p> 2024-02-17T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Exploring the Depths of Scars: The Connection between Domestic Violence and Mental Health in Married Women from Faisalabad, Pakistan- Insights into Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Anger 2024-02-19T12:06:20+05:00 Samar Hafeez <p>This study aims to explore the impact of domestic violence on the mental wellbeing of married women in Faisalabad, Pakistan, focusing on depression, anxiety, stress, and anger, and investigates variations between employed and unemployed women. Domestic violence, a pervasive issue affecting women's mental health worldwide, is particularly acute in Faisalabad's socio-economic milieu, where economic hardships heighten mental distress. Employing a methodology that surveyed 300 married women aged 18-55 using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), the Clinical Anger Scale (CAS), and a Domestic Violence Questionnaire, this research analyzed data via SPSS to determine the relationship between domestic violence and mental health issues. The results underscored a significant positive correlation between domestic violence and mental health afflictions, identifying domestic violence as a crucial predictor of such conditions, with nuanced differences observed between employed and unemployed respondents. Thus, the research supports women's empowerment by highlighting mental health awareness, gender-sensitive healthcare, community involvement, and cultural changes that promote wellness.</p> 2024-02-18T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review