Pakistan Social Sciences Review <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Social Sciences Review (PSSR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PSSR is a <strong>Triple-Blinded peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS) en-US Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2664-0422 <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN SOCIAL SCIENCES REVIEW (PSSR)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>PSSR</strong> agree to the copyright policy under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>PSSR</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>PSSR</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN SOCIAL SCIENCES REVIEW (PSSR)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access Policy</strong> for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> Social Responsibility of Corporate Sector: A Comparative Analysis between Pakistan and United Kingdom (UK) <p>The purpose of the study is to investigate the diversity in the laws and regulations and the cultural milieu in which corporations operate in the UK and Pakistan which led to the differences and similarities in CSR practices. This research aims to evaluate and compare the incorporation of term, definition, influence of religion, role of civil societies, governmental actions, spending, reporting, national strategies, visibility, spectrum, transparency, financial aspects, sustainable activities, awards culture and educational programs, legal and regulatory frameworks of CSR practices in two regions of the world namely the British isle, and Pakistan. This qualitative study is conducted through comparative research analysis. The study results revealed that CSR activities coupled with similarities and differences are shifting from philanthropy to sustainability, the CSR movement in most of the nations is yet to gain the mainstream acceptance as it enjoys in the developed countries.</p> Balqees Amjad Azhar Saeed Anees Amjad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-23 2024-05-23 8 2 01 16 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)01 Job Embeddedness: A Framework For Understanding Factors Affecting School Teachers Retention in Pakistan <p>Teacher turnover in Pakistan is a pervasive problem at all levels of the educational sector, which negatively influences the continuity of teaching, student outcomes, and overall school functioning. The paper explores job embeddedness as a framework for understanding and tackling teacher turnover. The study is quantitative, and a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect data using the Job embeddedness scale as an instrument. Elementary school educators from two tehsils in Lahore district were the sample. Results revealed that male elementary school educators are more embedded than females. In urban areas, elementary school educators are found to be more embedded. It is also evident in the results that the higher degree is attained, the more embeddedness in the job is achieved. Hence, it is concluded that more supportive policies should be implemented to elevate the job embeddedness of female school teachers.</p> Rabia Ghaffar Muhammad Abiodullah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-24 2024-05-24 8 2 17 28 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)02 Hate Speech Prevalence and Identification in Pakistani Academic Environments: An Exploratory Study <p>Hate speech is the use of insulting, hostile, and malicious rhetoric towards a person or group of people because of what is believed to be their fundamental qualities. It can be harmful to people. To enhance comprehension regarding the frequency and attributes of hate speech, this research aims to investigate prevalence of hate speech in Pakistani academic institutions. To foster a climate of acceptance and kindness, it is important that students are aware of hate speech and alert when it is spoken. By doing this, an atmosphere where everyone has the chance to thrive may be created where everyone feels safe and at ease in their surroundings. Almost 215 students fill the survey questionnaire. The results showed that, even if they were unaware of it, majority of respondents had encountered hate speech.</p> Naila Rafique Saima Iqbal Sidra Huma Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 29 28 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)03 Examining the Impact of Knowledge-Oriented Leadership on Organizational Performance: A Case Study of Higher Education Commission Institutions <p>This study investigates the impact of knowledge-oriented leadership (KOL) on the performance of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) under the Higher Education Commission. HEIs are pivotal for economic and educational advancement. Fostering Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) boosts motivation, engagement, and responsibility among knowledge workers. The research employs a positivist approach with quantitative methods and limited to a one-year cross-sectional time period to explore the relationship between KOLs and organizational effectiveness. Using Smart PLS-SEM 4 software, data from 640 participants were analyzed to assess the mediating effects of knowledge worker motivation, engagement, and responsibility. Findings indicate a strong positive correlation between KOL and organizational performance, influenced by the motivation, engagement, and accountability of knowledge workers. On the basis of findings and conclusion following recommendations were made. Prioritize knowledge-oriented leadership (KOL) to enhance HEI performance. Implement strategies to develop and support Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) within HEIs. Leverage theoretical and practical insights to guide leadership practices in HEIs.</p> Shahid Ul Islam Syed Umar Farooq Naseer Ud Din Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 40 47 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)04 Understanding the Quad’s Influence: US Assistance to India and its Effects on Pakistan <p>The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad), an informal alliance, consists of the US, India, Japan and Australia. Keeping in view the alliances, the objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of the support provided by the US to India, including sanction waivers, diplomatic support, and membership support in the NSG. It also examines the consequences of the US and India's support system on Pakistan's security calculus. Qualitative research methodology is used, applying thematic analysis to explain the implications of the Indo-US nexus on Pakistan. The result of the paper has found that since the formation of the Quad, cooperation between the US and India has increased significantly, and India is playing an effective role in maligning and spreading propaganda against Pakistan. In the end, the paper concludes by mentioning the way forward for Pakistan in such situations.</p> Syed Ehsan Ali Umme Farwa Asad ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 48 58 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)05 Impact of Leadership Vision on Employee Commitment and Organizational Excellence: A Case Study of Public Sector Universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa <p>This study investigates the impact of leadership vision (LV) on the employee commitment (EC) and organizational excellence (OE). Basic objectives of the study were to comprehend the Dimensions and components of effective leadership vision, to find out the association between leadership vision and employee commitment, and to assess the impact of leadership vision clarity and consistency on employee commitment. Five public sector universities and 380 male and female lecturers have been chosen. Information was gathered through questionnaires using cluster sampling techniques. Only 340 questionnaires were received and using different statistical methods, including mean, percentage, Pearson's correlation, and Regression. Tested the above construct were found that there is strong positive impact of Leadership vision on employee commitment. Moreover, the strategic alignment of vision with the university's values and objectives ensures coherence and unity of purpose, enabling effective decision-making and resource allocation. As a result, employees are more engaged, proactive, and invested in their work, leading to improved performance, innovation, and overall organizational excellence and effectiveness.</p> Abdul Wahab Muhammad Naseer Ud Din Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 59 67 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)06 Paradigm Shift of Construction Techniques from Vernacular to Neo--Vernacular in Villages to Sustain Climate Change <p>The purpose of the study is to conduct a comparative analysis of traditional and modern architectural approaches in rural communities to identify architectural styles that endure environmental challenges. Climate change is an urgent global challenge that necessitates immediate action to minimize its detrimental effects. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2007 highlighted that developing and least developed countries would bear a greater burden from climate change compared to developed countries. This holds true even at the community level, where impoverished individuals suffer the consequences of climatic anomalies due to limited resources and lack of access to information. This study explores the correlation between human habitation and architectural design in rural regions through literature and surveys. The findings offer significant perspectives for fostering sustainable development. A re-embrace of the ethos and design principles of vernacular architecture can guide the creation of more sustainable and adaptive architectural solutions.</p> Maryam Jamil Khizra Shahzad Amna Mustafa Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 68 81 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)07 Are Meanings of Exocentric Compounds Really Idiosyncratic or Systematic? An Experimental Study <p>Exocentric compounds, also referred to as bahuvrihi compounds, are distinguishable from other classes of compounds, e.g., endocentric, in the ground that their meanings are unpredictable and idiosyncratic. For this single most important reason, these compounds have been marginalized and didn't receive as closer attention as the other classes. But the question is, are these types of choices really random? Their mere scale of productivity would deny the assumption that they are random and unsystematic. This paper originates in the assumption that these compounds in fact lend sufficient evidence that their formation and 'idiosyncratic' interpretation is on the other hand very systematic and can be explained elegantly if we bring into perspective the cultural aspect which regulates their formation through the mechanism of metonymic/metaphoric relations. In order to substantiate the claim, this study designed an exercise for Punjabi language speakers/experts where they were given novel (non-prevalent) exocentric compounds and were asked to interpret them. The study lent a great deal of support to the view adopted that the culturally shared knowledge allowed the respondents to interpret these exocentric compounds fairly correctly. The results are encouraging that the cultural aspect of the compounds holds true which explains the assumption that these types of compounds are systematic and a rule governed phenomenon.</p> Saima Jamshaid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 82 93 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)08 The Impact of ICT on College Libraries' Technical and Reference Services <p>This research was conducted to explore the impact of ICT on library technical and reference services in the public sector college libraries of Punjab. The quantitative approach and survey method was used by distributing the questionnaire to all the population of 236 professionals having minimum 16 years of education. 187 valid responses were received with a response rate of 79.23 %. The mean value concerning to the impact of ICT on library technical and reference services was below the average 3 and score of technical services was a little higher than reference services. The age experience and ICT training were found significant positive predictor for better impact of ICT on both library services. A non-significant positive relationship was also detected in the two variables of gender and qualification. The mean value for using ICT among male and higher qualified respondents was a little higher than female and lower degree holders. The electronic devices should be provided in the libraries. The opportunities for ICT training should be increased with special reference to the female professionals. This study is important for authorities making policies and releasing funds for libraries and it would prove a good contribution in the existing literature on the impact of ICT on the services rendering by the college libraries of Punjab, Pakistan.</p> Arif Ali Muhammad Ahmad Shah Nusrat Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 94 107 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)09 Ambiance of Ideational Meta-function in the Short Stories ‘The Tell-Tale Heart’ and ‘The Necklace’ <p>This study is aimed at describing the ideational function in Edger Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart and Guy De Maupassant’s The Necklace. It delves deep into exploring the lexico-grammatical strategies used in these short stories to convey the style of the author as his representation. The grammar of clauses as transitive patterns encodes ideational meanings about the participants’ role, experience, processes and circumstances. By finding transitive patterns in the clauses of the text, we can describe in detail how different fields of situations are being constructed. In this way, the researchers propose a reading demonstration/observation of the texts of the two writers from two different eras in the history of English literature. The researchers are intended to point out the patterns of ideational function pervading in the lexico-grammatical structures of Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart and Guy De Maupassant’s The Necklace to highlight authors’ techniques of foregrounding the ideational meta-function with varying styles and frequencies.</p> Faiza Saleem Shazia Kousar Kinza Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 108 116 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)10 Exploring Secondary School Students' Classroom Learning Experiences: A Qualitative Investigation <p>This study aimed to explore the classroom learning experiences of secondary school students. Classroom learning experiences impact students’ enthusiasm, engagement and achievement. A qualitative, descriptive research design was used. All students enrolled in 10th grade of the public secondary schools affiliated with the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE) Lahore, were the population of the study. Eight groups (4 of boys &amp; 4 of girls) were selected from four districts affiliated with BISE by convenient sampling technique. Each group comprised of eight participants. Semi-structured focus group interview protocol was used for collecting detailed data about students’ learning experiences in classroom. The results of thematic analysis reflected varied learning experiences. Overall, the results emphasized that the preference for active learning in classroom where multiple approaches are employed by teachers to enhance students' interest in learning. It is recommended that proper facilities and teacher training may be provided to improve students’ learning experiences and engagement in classroom.</p> Ayesha Zulfiqar Munaza Nausheen Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 117 135 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)11 Women Empowerment in KPK: A Case Study of District Buner <p>Women empowerment is crucial for the progress of a society and a state. In this paper the district Buner’s women vulnerable position is addressed in order to produce literature which can boost awareness in the society so that women can be emancipated. Since the inception, on the pretexts of religion and culture the women have been sieged in their homes which is against the very rights of human. In this regard, it is opted to utilize both the primary and secondary data under qualitative and quantitative methodologies in order to explain it effectively. As a results, the people have been using both religion and culture to regulate women resource as per their wishes. Such issue can be addressed on the genuine efforts of the government and the civil society at all fronts by modernizing the views of the people regarding women’s rights.</p> Muslim Khan Saqib Khan Warraich Umair Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 136 143 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)12 British Colonial Legacies and Manifestations of Power Politics: A Case Study of Walled City of Lahore <p>The underlying study is an endeavor to trace the role of British colonial legacies and it’s off shot in formulation of political authority and power politics in Lahore. The various administrative, recruitment and socio-economic policies of British in United India were one of the key determinant factors for shaping influential local identities and economic classes among the indigenous population. These led to manifest the role of local kinship in politics and its ability to control the distribution of resources in post-colonial Punjab. It has been observed that British’s attempt to define and redefine local identities for their sake of their administrative and political control over the colonial territory played a vital role for the materialization of power configuration in post-colonial societies in general and specifically in Lahore. This research primarily deals with notion that how British’s deliberate patronage to two significant identities; Kashmiris and Arians led to strengthen the role of these respective biraderis (caste) in electoral politics of Lahore in later years especially in the Walled city of Lahore. This study highlights that these two biraderis are leading the contemporary power politics of National and Provincial assemblies in the respective constituency as voting preferences of electorates and ticket allocation by key political parties are largely shaped by influence of biraderis. This study is primarily qualitative as historical and explanatory approaches have been incorporated while employing empirical evidences from the primary and secondary resources. This research aims to identify the link between British policies of using local power apparatus for the colonial objectives and its role to shape the power patterns of electoral politics of Lahore</p> Sadia Mahmood Falki Javeria Sehar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 144 162 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)13 Item Analysis of Achievement Test in the Subject of English for Grade 8 Developed by Punjab Examination Commission <p>Item analysis can serve as a useful tool in improving Multiple-Choice Questions used in Examination. It can identify gaps between instruction and assessment. The primary objective of conducting this research was to analyze the items of question papers (based on MCQs) of Punjab Examination Commission for class 8th for the Examinations Tests, on English subject in different schools of district Multan. In particular, the objectives of the study were to find the items difficulties on the basis of difficulty index (p), discrimination power (D), reliability and validity of the tests. Through traditional method of item analysis, difficulty index, discriminatory index and phi-coefficient were calculated. The test was administered to the sample of 229 students and all format of English Papers which comprising of four versions at 20 schools of rural and urban (10 each) including 10 boys and 10 girls’ schools of Multan district. Separate answer sheets were provided to students included in the sample. After collecting answer sheets, marks were awarded. Several worksheets were prepared to perform item analysis. It was found that some deficiencies were found in the items of question papers of Punjab Examination Commission for 8th grade. It was recommended to overcome those deficiencies and drop the difficult items.</p> Romena Ali Muhammad Aqeel Raza Hafiz Kosar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review 2024-05-27 2024-05-27 8 2 163 175 10.35484/pssr.2024(8-II-S)14