Pakistan Social Sciences Review <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS) Securities Exchange Commission of Pakistan (N0. 0218990</strong> is an educational set up to manage the educational and research activities with modern scientific devices for the welfare and to educate the nation with these objectives</p> <ul> <li>To improve the quality of education and research activities</li> <li>To provide the chance to avail modern method of teaching and learning to students, teachers and researchers.</li> <li>To held conferences, lectures, discussions to raise research activities</li> </ul> <p>Pakistan Social Sciences Review (PSSR) publishes original and quality research in all disciplines of social sciences. PSSR is a <strong>Triple-Blinded peer-reviewed</strong> <strong>open access</strong> multidisciplinary research journal that publishes <strong>Quarterly</strong>. This academic research journal addresses both applied and theoretical issues in social sciences in English language. Likely subscribers are universities, research institutions, governmental, non-governmental agencies and individual researchers.</p> en-US <p><img src="" alt="Open Access" /></p> <p><strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN SOCIAL SCIENCES REVIEW (PSSR)</strong> adheres to <strong>Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License</strong>. The authors submitting and publishing in <strong>PSSR</strong> agree to the copyright policy under <strong>creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International license)</strong>. Under this license, the authors published in <strong>PSSR</strong> retain the copyright including publishing rights of their scholarly work and agree to let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. All other authors using the content of <strong>PSSR</strong> are required to cite author(s) and publisher in their work. Therefore, <strong>RESEARCH OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (SMC-PRIVATE) LIMITED(ROSS)</strong> &amp; <strong>PAKISTAN SOCIAL SCIENCES REVIEW (PSSR)</strong> follow an <strong>Open Access Policy</strong> for copyright and licensing.</p> <p><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Signatory of DORA" /></a></p> (Dr. Saqib Mahmood) (Dr. Riaz Ahmed Mangrio) Mon, 01 Apr 2024 03:47:05 +0500 OJS 60 Incidental Exposure to the Political Contents on Social Media and Political Participation in Pakistan <p>The study aimed to investigate the association between incidental exposure on social media political contents and political participation. Social networking sites play an important role in political participation. While existing literature extensively explores the impact of social media on political engagement in Pakistan, there is a notable gap in understanding the influence of incidental exposure on social media on political participation. In this Research quantitative research design was used. A survey method was used to collect data from the chosen sample of 300 respondents. The data was collected online through purposive sampling. The findings of the study reveal that people mostly use YouTube, Facebook and Instagram. Furthermore, Incidental exposure on social media leads to political information acquiring and also leads people to participate in political activities. This study underscores their capacity to engage individuals previously disinterested in politics. These platforms emerge as catalysts for political involvement, particularly in the context of Pakistan</p> Muhammad Raza Majid, Dr. Sadaf Irtaza, Dr. Malik Adnan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Islamic Teachings Portrayal in Pakistani Television Dramas: A Review of Current Research and Findings <p>This study aims to analyze the presentation of Islamic teachings in Pakistani television dramas, providing insights into the portrayal of religious themes within this medium. Given the significant role television dramas play in shaping public perceptions, exploring the representation of Islamic teachings is crucial. Previous research in this domain has been limited, warranting a comprehensive examination to understand how these dramas contribute to cultural and religious narratives. A qualitative approach is employed, involving content analysis of select Pakistani television dramas. Themes related to Islamic teachings, cultural nuances, and their impact on viewers are examined. The study also considers the historical and societal context influencing the portrayal of religious elements in these dramas. The findings reveal diverse representations of Islamic teachings in Pakistani television dramas, ranging from accurate depictions to potential misinterpretations. The influence of societal and cultural factors on the portrayal of religious themes is evident. The study identifies patterns and trends in the presentation of Islamic teachings in this entertainment medium. Based on the results, it is recommended that content creators, producers, and policymakers collaborate to ensure a more nuanced and accurate representation of Islamic teachings in television dramas. This includes incorporating input from religious scholars and fostering awareness about the responsibility associated with depicting religious content on mainstream media. Additionally, encouraging diverse perspectives and fostering a balanced portrayal of Islamic teachings can contribute to a more informed and culturally sensitive viewership.</p> Bushra Sarwar, Asif Arshad, Maham Shams Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Identifying the Key Factors Affecting Occupational Health and Safety Compliance in SMEs: A Study of the Construction Sector in South Punjab <p>This research focuses on the multifaceted landscape of occupational health and safety (OHS) compliance within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in the construction sector. This research investigates the determinants and factors affecting the OHS practices. Findings indicate that SMEs face challenges related to area of awareness, resource allocation, economic constraints, lack of training and compliance. New and unexperienced workers do not pay any consideration in maintaining the safety compliance attitude. Many people are aware of the standard regulations of occupational safety but they opt out of staying compliant to these regulations. This research highlights the needs for tailored interventions to address the unique challenges faced by SMEs in South Punjab’s construction sector. This research consists of a questionnaire (10 questions) to understand the compliance in construction workers. A survey was done to collect the results from the sample size of 60 individuals and the quantitative method was used. It discusses factors contributing to occupational hazards, such as inadequate training, lack of safety infrastructure, and non-compliance with regulations. Additionally, it highlights the economic and societal impacts of workplace injuries and emphasizes the need for comprehensive OHS policies and enforcement mechanisms. The article also addresses the role of education, government intervention, and collaborative efforts between stakeholders in mitigating OHS risks. There is a need for highlighting the ongoing efforts to foster a safer working environment in the construction industry. Occupational health and safety workers need to play a crucial role when it comes to assess the safety management of the construction site. It is recommended that all employees receive PPEs and safety training must be available.</p> Hafiz Ahmed Hussain, Dr. Waheed Asghar, Sohail Anwar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Couple’s Satisfaction of Married Adults from Pakistan: A Cross-Cultural Validation of Couple Satisfaction Index-4 <p>The research aimed at the translation of Couple Satisfaction Index-4 for the cultural adaptation and use in context of Pakistani married individuals. It focused on Current translation and development of psychometric properties for the four-item version. Numerous researches have been conducted to investigate the marital satisfaction of romantic partners. In this context, couple satisfaction index is the widely used instrument based on availability of its different versions containing 32, 16, and 4 items. Couple Satisfaction Index-4 was first translated in Urdu language by obtaining two versions of Urdu through help of bilingual experts. Second, subject matter experts and five couples reviewed the final Urdu version for face validity and clarification of any ambiguities. Based on the feedback, corrections were made, and final Urdu version was obtained. Back translation was obtained with bilingual experts that was verified and approved by original author. After fulfilling all these criteria Urdu version was ready for the validation. For validation, 100 couples were recruited from five provincial capitals of Pakistan. They were provided with informed consent, demographic sheet, Urdu translated instrument and Satisfaction Level subscale of Urdu translated Investment Model Scale. The obtained data was first checked for normality assumption. After obtaining acceptable values of skewness and kurtosis, confirmatory factor analysis and Pearson correlation was performed for construct validation. The findings suggested that CSI-4 Urdu translated version has sound psychometric properties for assessing couple and individual marital satisfaction among adults of Pakistan.</p> Aliya Abdul Hayee, Dr. Anila Kamal Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Use of Chunking Technique to Assist Pashto Speakers in Determining Grammatical Gender while Learning Urdu <p>The current study focuses on the challenges faced by Pushto speakers who desire to learn Urdu or seek a career in mastering a language. It suggests possible tactics for reducing the level of difficulty in learning grammatical gender through chunking technique by using experimentation method that helps the Pashto speakers in labelling grammatical gender to inanimate objects in Urdu language while focusing on adjective-noun pairs. The research quantitatively collects data from an experimental group of Pashto speakers living in Charsadda-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through pre-tests and post-tests. The sample size of the study includes eight students of grade 8th of Indus Private School Charsadda, who were selected through purposive sampling. The participants were provided with teaching sessions of 60 minutes’ duration for ten days. However, the teaching sessions were conducted online through Zoom Cloud Meeting application due to COVID19 epidemic situation in the country. The learners were taught by providing the list of masculine and feminine adjective-nouns and the use of prepositions, verbs and possessive pronouns in inanimate objects by exposing the gender. The findings clearly show improvement in the average score of student’s pre-tests and post-tests. As a result, the chunking strategy is recommended for learners who use Urdu as their second language, particularly when the grammatical gender of their first language varies. The study recommends the practice of connecting adjectives with nouns by using the chunking technique as a pedagogical tactic to teach Urdu language to Pashto speakers.</p> Wajiha Saleem, Ferva Aslam, Aqdas Khanam Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Enhancing Early Intervention for Deaf Children: A Study on Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) in Punjab, Pakistan <p>This qualitative descriptive study delves into the awareness and systematic implementation challenges surrounding Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs) for deaf children in Pakistan. Through semi-structured interviews with parents, professionals, and NGO representatives, the research highlights a pervasive lack of awareness among stakeholders, limited access to early screenings, and an absence of formal institutes providing comprehensive support. Thematic analysis of the interview data reveals recurring themes such as limited systematic mechanisms and efforts, limited involvement of professionals in IFSPs, fragmented services and lack of coordination, and barriers to accessibility. The findings underscore the urgency of comprehensive awareness campaigns, systematic screenings, interdisciplinary training, and advocacy for government involvement to address the multifaceted barriers to effective IFSP implementation.</p> Dr. Asma Kanwal, Dr. Rukhsana Bashir, Hafiz Muhammad Afzaal Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Beyond Laughter: Unpacking Political Discourse in Pakistan through the Lens of Facebook Political Memes <p>Political memes play a vital role in contributing to contemporary politics and in Pakistan; several political memes can be seen on social networking sites every day. In addition, the perception of public participation in politics has expanded in recent years and now, people especially youth prefer to use social media to share their political thoughts. Based on this observation, this research examines the recurring themes found within political memes and the role of memes in initiating political discourse. Thematic analysis has been conducted in this study and three Facebook pages having high and medium-range followers have been filtered out by applying keywords such as ‘political memes’, ‘political memes in Pakistan’, and ‘top political meme pages in Pakistan’. Over all 76 political memes have been extracted from these pages and analyzed based on their link to political leaders and political personalities. Memes related to the top three political parties and their leaders including Pakistan Muslim League (PMLN), Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), and Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPPP) have been examined. The study concludes that memes have the potential to propagate political ideologies among social media users. They are a vital source of political participation and depict the interest of people in different political and national issues. For future research, pictorial elements used in a meme such as the position of the texts, image, camera angle, and other aspects can be analyzed as well to study political memes more deeply.</p> Muhammad Suleman, Dr. Noshina Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Unravelling the Symphony of High-Performance Work Systems from Commitment to Satisfaction, Readiness for Change, and Beyond <p>Exploring the intricate landscape of organizational behavior, this study untangles HPWS dynamics in terms of commitment, satisfaction, readiness for change and performance. A rigorous quantitative method was used in this research that relied on data drawn from 290 HR professionals and middle to lower-management employees of different industries such as Pharma, IT, Retail and Banking. Our results tell a complex story that shows how HPWS affects Effective Commitment and Job Satisfaction. Interestingly, Effective Commitment proves to be the mediator which influences the HPWS-Readiness for Change relationship. As organizational landscapes continue to change, the study not only fills some of the gaps that we have in present-day research but also can be considered as a standard for upcoming research. The study provides a strategic perspective for managers, policymakers and HR practitioners as the resulting study depicts how HPWS arranges an orchestra of organizational success which alludes to fine-tuning in creating commitment, satisfaction, and adaptive readiness dynamics.</p> Syed Muhammad Fauzan Ali, Abdul Kabeer Kazi, Fahad Ahmed Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Perceived Boss Phubbing on Employee Work Alienation and Employee Presenteeism through the Mediating Role of Organizational Pride <p>This study investigates the continuous discourse about the potential detrimental effects of global technology usage in the workplace and analyses the adverse outcomes associated with the indispensable use of technology at work. In the future, societies will develop a growing interest in technology and its associated instruments, such as cellphones. This study reveals a growing trend among supervisors, specifically boss phubbing, which refers to the degree to which supervisors are distracted by their smartphones when they are with their subordinates. The study also investigates the effects of boss phubbing on presenteeism and work alienation, with organisational pride acting as a mediator. The quantitative study used confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling on 360 participants to examine phubbing and its effects. Andersen and Garbing's (1988) two-step method was used to identify causal links and evaluate the model. The findings revealed that supervisor phubbing led to a drop in organizational pride, resulting in an increase in presenteeism and work alienation. In addition, Phubbing has a clear impact on presenteeism and work alienation, as evidenced by the outcomes of the study. The study suggests to Implement phubbing education, mobile policy, and "smartphone safe" zones to improve productivity and relationships.</p> Shehar Bano, Nyela Ashraf, Kanwal Shahzadi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Identifying Social Mobility and Lifestyle of People during COVID-19 in Pakistan <p>Researcher assesses the multi-dimensional consequences of COVID-19 on social mobility as well as patterns of living in Pakistan. COVID-19 has led to dramatically changes in people’s social mobility and lifestyle. Lesser social mobility is connected with less equality of opportunity. It builds a fragmented and broke society, by social, political and economic geographical divides. This research (humanize) employs a mixed-methods strategy (suggest the addition of the word strategy here) combining (select the correct verb) quantitative surveys with qualitative interviews and investigates the changes in (substitute a new preposition here) employment enrolments to educational institutions traffic flow patterns food habits physical activities and leisure activities. The results point to the fact that the domains of Education Health Jobs and the Effect of individuals in Pakistan have faced disruption reflecting the wide effect of the Pandemic on multiple areas of life in Pakistan. This paper highlights the significance of comprehending these social mobility and lifestyle changes to educate the public health field policy-making and resource allocation. These goal to resolve the problem and put resilience mechanisms in place after the pandemic.</p> Qurat-ul-ain Rana, Prof. Dr. Rana Saba Sultan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Shrinking Possibilities to Educate Youth with Compromised Socioeconomic Background: Uncertain Economic Shift of Pakistan <p>People with compromised socioeconomic backgrounds throughout the world are struggling to get their children educated but the situation is getting worse in poorer nations such as Pakistan due to never ending crises. The main objective of the study was to investigate problems faced by low-income families to educate their children. The QUAN-qual study design was used and 120 dropped-off students were selected as a sample of the study from 8 universities in Pakistan. The student’s family socioeconomic framework (SFSF) questionnaire was used to collect data. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the students left the University before completion of their degree, due to financial crises. The increase in overall expenses of the family did not allow them to get a portion of finance from their family income to continue their study instead of contributing to family income by getting involved in some kind of job.</p> Dr. Bushra Yasin, Dr. Muhammad Azim, Dr. Abdul Salam Lodhi Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Resistance, Revolt, and Agency: A Radical Feminist Study of All the Lives We Never Lived <p>This paper studies gender disparity and female victimization in Anuradha Roy’s All the Lives We Never Lived from radical feminist perspective. It argues that gender discrimination is a fundamental cause of female oppression particularly in Indian context. It emphasizes the need for equal power dynamics and communication between genders to negotiate claustrophobic domesticity and achieve female empowerment. It is a qualitative research that critically studies the problem of female subjugation using Germaine Greer’s conceptual paradigm of radical feminism through textual analysis. The paper highlights the imbalanced nature of marriage where men act as dictators and treat women as inferior and sexual objects. Greer pleads the importance of women revolting against patriarchy, and breaking stereotypical gender roles and the protagonist Gayatri acts radically. She establishes her freewill by breaking the bond of her marriage and followed her dreams within an oppressive phallocentric Indian world, she revolted against patriarchal control and established her agency.</p> Muhammad Amir, Safana Hashmat, Sadaf Rashid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Emergence of the Digital Financial Literacy, and its Effect on the Financial Management Behavior among Students of Pakistan <p>The purpose of this study is to explore that how digital financial-literacy influences the financial management performance of the university students who utilize services of digital banking in Pakistan. Primary data was obtained from a questionnaire distributed to university students in Pakistan. This study adopted a partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS – SEM) approach for data analysis using the Smart-PLS program. The study's conclusions show that when students in Pakistan use digital banking services, their saving attitude is significantly impacted. Additionally, students' spending and investment are significantly impacted by digital financial literacy. Finally, students' use of digital banking services in Pakistan is significantly impacted by them. To put it succinctly, this study has the potential to enhance the comprehension of digital financial literacy among Pakistani university students.</p> Mehak Ali, Muhammad Alamgir, Dr. Muhammad Arif Nawaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Greening the Workplace: Harnessing Human Resource Strategies for Employee Pro-environmental Behavior <p>This study examines the effects of Green HRM practices on employee pro-environmental behavior, such as green performance management and appraisal, green training and development, hiring and selecting practices, and incentive and remuneration practices. It also investigates the mediation effect of pro-environmental psychological capital between pro-environmental behavior and green HRM practices.To promote environmental sustainability, employee actions that support the environment are a prerequisite for the organization. The predominant issue HR professionals face today is ensuring environmental sustainability. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire from 350 manufacturing company employees. The snowball sampling technique was utilized. The findings showed that GHRM practices positively influence pro-environmental behavior and that this relationship is mediated by pro-environmental psychological capital. Companies should provide green awareness to&nbsp;their employees about environmental issues by offering green training that clarifies the principles.</p> Qirat, Dr. Shahzadi Sattar, Dr. Muhammad Kashif Nawaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Security Dynamics of Pakistan: A Reciprocal Analysis of Globalization and 5th Generations Warfare <p>This study determines the threats of Fifth-generation warfare to Pakistan by using different tools such as social and electronic media. Poor governance and stumbling economy along with increased population growth and extremism make the Pakistan an unstable country of the region. Rising ethnic and sectarian strife has impaired the Pakistan stability. Intolerance, gender discrimination and gap between poor and rich are prevailing in every sector of Pakistan and no one can escape from this menace. On the behalf of ethnicities, number of associations is being launched while sectionalism is at its peak in Baluchistan. Rapid urbanization has changed the demography of major cities created many problems in the sense of pollution, poverty, depletion of resources and crime. Insurgencies in tribal areas and Baluchistan are great threats to Pakistan integrity. Internal violence coupled with demographic pressure due to low economic and high population growth is some key issues which Pakistan is facing now. Unemployment and inequal education and socio-economic system is provoking the extremism among Pakistan’s youth Currently, Pakistan is fighting with internal security issues arising from extremism and sectarian violence while the ailing economy coupled with unemployment and poverty are major trajectories in Pakistan which worsen more with spillover effects of hybrid warfare.</p> Maria Rubab, Unzur Kaifa, Ishwah Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Unveiling Sociological Perspectives in the Era of Artificial Intelligence, Labor, and Unemployment: Future Forward <p>This paper delves into the intricate sociological dimensions surrounding artificial intelligence (AI), with a specific focus on ethical dilemmas and the contentious discourse regarding potential job displacement, particularly in sectors such as manufacturing and health-care. While some projections anticipate significant unemployment as a consequence of AI integration, contrasting perspectives suggest the emergence of novel employment opportunities akin to historical industrial revolutions. The methodology for this study involves comprehensive literature review and analysis of diverse viewpoints on AI, emphasizing sociological perspectives. It underscores the potential for AI to exacerbate prevailing social inequalities while also contemplating the possibility of fostering AI systems that prioritize human welfare. In light of these findings, recommendations for future research emphasize the necessity for continued critical analysis of AI's socio-economic ramifications, with a keen focus on ethical considerations and the formulation of strategies aimed at mitigating inequalities, thus contributing to a nuanced comprehension of the evolving socio-technological landscape shaped by AI integration</p> Dr. Umair Ahmed, Amber Javed, Zaryab Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Problems of Education System in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis and Solution <p>Education system has importance in the development of any country. Without better education no country can make progress. The main objective of the study is to review the problems of education system in Pakistan. For this paper literature regarding problems of education system in Pakistan was critically analyzed. It was find out that major issues faced by our educational system were gender inequality, insufficient educational budget, outdated curriculum, poor examination system, Internal and external influence on education system, lack of quality teachers, political interference, The lack of faculty training and development, dropout ratio, lack of uniformity in education system, Education without Direction and failure to achieve millennium developmental goals. It was recommended that should take steps to decrease gender inequality. Sufficient budget should be allocated for educational purpose. Steps should be taken to minimize drop out. Internal and external interferences should be avoided to improve quality of education. Curriculum should be updated according to needs of people.</p> Dr. Misbah Akhtar, Zahida Andleeb, Dr. Samina Akhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Ethnic Nationalism in Baluchistan: The Role of Government and Civil Society (2000-2022) <p>Baluchistan is crucial for Pakistan’s progress and development both in terms of international projects and natural resources. Since the inception, Baluchistan is under ethnic nationalism which creates hurdles in the works. In this study the concept of ethnic nationalism and role of government and civil society will be addressed to comprehend the real issue in order to provide candid suggestions for the solution of the problem. The ethno-symbolist nationalism theory will be applied to comprehend the Baluchistan’s ethnic nationalism and the role of government and civil society. Besides, secondary sources have been consulted to address the issue qualitatively. As a result, the Baluchistan’s ethnic nationalism creates hurdles owing to the negligence of government in terms of unequal distribution of the resources and massive human rights violation in the province. Furthermore, the role of civil society and the elites of Baluchistan are also not up to the mark. Henceforth, these factors further contribute to exacerbate the crisis in the province. For the solution of the issue government needs to extirpate the above mentioned hurdles on the priority basis.</p> Muslim Khan, Dr. Saqib Khan Warraich, Junaid Ahmad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Branding Higher Education: Neoliberalism's Role in Shaping Students’ Choices Through Market Forces <p>Universities today function more like businesses and are subject to neoliberal demands that place the burden on the person to "identify" a service that aligns with their goals and desires. The objectives of the study is to find out why universities advertise themselves, how they are promoting themselves as brands to enhance students’ enrolment. Through Cluster sampling the researcher has selected physical data of 5 billboards of different private universities from transit areas of Lahore, and a survey consisting of 15 questions was conducted from 36 students. The survey data was analyzed by the App Survey Heart, and the physical data is analyzed qualitatively through Marxist theory by Karl Marx &amp; Friedrich Engels in 1848, and 4ps of marketing by E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960. The research found that universities advertise themselves because they are part of capitalist society that seeks to make money, to demonstrate academic versatility to perpetuate the existing social order by promoting the idea that education is key to upward mobility that serves the ruling class, and to position education as the product for success. Private institutions should not become corporate brands or promote branded education on transit with false claims to attract students.</p> Hassan Raza, Musarat Yasmin, Sadia Asif Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Multan's Domestic Travel Landscape: Unraveling Influential Factors in Transportation Choices <p>The study endeavors to discern the determinants influencing individual travel mode preferences within the urban landscape of Multan City, located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. Methodologically anchored in primary data acquired through an online questionnaire, a judicious application of convenient sampling facilitated the assimilation of pertinent information. Employing the binary regression Logit model, the discernments proffer that variables such as income, total distance, gender, and fuel expenditure exert a significant influence on the selection of travel mode. Conversely, the variables of age and possession of a driving license were found to be non-contributory to the individuals' choices in travel mode.</p> Dr. Hina Ali, Syeda Neha Fatima, Rabia Mohsin Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Ph. D Completion in a Low-Income Country like Pakistan: An Exploration into the Difficulties and Challenges faced by Ph. D Scholars <p>This study aimed to investigate the challenges encountered by Ph.D. scholars in completing their doctoral studies within the constraints of a low-income country, such as Pakistan. A purposive sampling method was used to select 16 Ph.D. scholars from the social sciences across various regions of Pakistan. Their experiences were explored through semi-structured interviews, guided by a 12-question protocol adapted from Siddiqui et al. (2020). Results based on Thematic analysis indicated that a majority of the Ph.D. scholars expressed satisfaction with their choice of supervisors, having selected them based on their own. However, they suggested delaying the supervisor-selection process until the second semester, citing instances where some faculty members posed difficulties and challenges to those who had not chosen them as supervisor. Furthermore, scholars reported dissatisfaction with the support provided by their supervisors. Financial difficulties were also prevalent among the scholars, with many failing to secure merit scholarships, particularly due to their enrollment in evening or weekend programs.</p> Farheen Gull, Dr. Muhammad Hassan, Humayun Sohail Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Tue, 02 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Investigating Clickbait Strategies: A CDA of Pakistani YouTube News Channels <p>YouTube offers earning opportunity for the content creators and current affairs news get an advantage to be watched. The content creators prefer to use particular linguistic choices and designing on thumbnails that could convince the audience to click and watch. This study aims to investigate those click-bait strategies by applying qualitative methodology. For a comprehensive analysis, we have modified a CDA model presented by Bazaco, Redondo and Sánchez-García (2019). The data contains 36 news headlines randomly selected from six YouTube channels. At first level, we look at i) absence of the most important information, ii) unanswered questions iii) using question marks with simple sentences iv) deliberate ambiguity. At second level, we analyzed i) the styles of interrogation at sentence level, ii) the presentation of additional sentences or phrases that are specifically used to add sensationalism in those headlines. The study reveals that the news headlines on YouTube thumbnails are recreated from the main stream media, and commonly follow a question-style to add curiosity. Moreover, specific linguistic items, i.e., adjectives and adverbs are used to encourage people for clicking the certain links. This research may be beneficial to aware the general public to avoid clicking irrelevant or ambiguous news headlines that are written to generate website traffic. Furthermore, the young researchers interested in Critical Discourse Studies may explore other social media platforms for such analyses.</p> M. Mubeen Shah, Dr. Ahsan Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Wed, 03 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Nexus between TTP and Afghan Taliban: Impacts on Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations <p>Pakistan and Afghanistan share deep commonalties-social, cultural, religious, and political; which increases interdependency. This study deeply investigates the security implications for Pakistan since the Taliban regime 2.0. Afghan Taliban have strong connections with Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), such deep-rooted ties between the TTP and Afghan Taliban; thus, directly impacting bilateral ties. “Regional Security Complex theory and Constructivism has been applied to explain the whole situation. Pakistan’s security and stability greatly depend on Afghanistan’s internal political and security environments. The Neo-Taliban takeover of Afghanistan poses several challenges to Pakistan. In the aftermath of August 2021, Pakistan has witnessed a rise in militancy. Various articles, research papers, and books regarding the mentioned issue have been reviewed to explain it. In order to counter said challenges, this paper highlights various ways forward for Pakistan such as pragmatic and proactive foreign policy, regional cooperation comprehensive joint plan of action with the Afghan official</p> Asma, Dr. Nasreen Akhtar, Barkat Ullah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Thu, 04 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Perceived Usability of a Moodle-Based Learning Management System in Higher Education <p>The study aimed to evaluate the perceived usability of key characteristics of a Moodlebased LMS. Usability testing improves user satisfaction, lowers development costs, and increases system quality, and it has a direct impact on learning outcomes in educational settings. Methodologically, the Baloch Learning Management System was created, featuring an 'Introduction to Computer' course for thirty undergraduate students at the University of Turbat, Pakistan. The USE questionnaire categorized into 'Usefulness,' 'Satisfaction,' and 'Ease of Use' domains, guides data collection. Data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Results reveal overwhelmingly positive perceptions, with 77.33% affirming usefulness, 88.00% expressing satisfaction, and 79.05% finding the LMS easy to use. These findings contribute to the ongoing discourse on usability and provide actionable insights for educational institutions seeking to enhance Moodle-based LMS design and implementation. The study suggests prioritizing user-friendly interfaces, clear instructions, and efficient navigation to enhance user experience, and ongoing training programs to enhance LMS capabilities.</p> Jamil Ahmed, Sardaran Laghari, Muhammad Essa Siddique Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Thu, 04 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Perception of Secondary and Higher Secondary School Students about the Role of Permaculture to sustain the Living System <p>The most influential concept about environment come to the fore termed as Permaculture which means to use land resources without producing waste. The present exploration based on the purpose to find out the secondary and higher secondary school students’ perceptions about the role of permaculture to sustain the living system. It is the quantitative research study along the survey research method comprising the population of secondary and higher secondary private schools of district Lahore. The convenient sampling technique was used to administer the instrument in the targeted sample. Sample size consists of 1304 male and female students of 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th from eight schools. Reliability of the instrument established with Cronbach’s alpha 0.885. The findings indicate that the practice of permaculture promotes the eco-literacy among individuals throughout the life and they are able to sustain their lives. It is recommended that permaculture as a subject should be included in curriculum or in our own practices or may be a part of prospective teachers’ training to cope the environmental challenges.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Adnan Asghar, Dr. Tayyaba Muhammad Akram, Rabia Hafeez Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Fri, 05 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Academic Enablers to Success of Students with Hearing Impairment at the Undergraduate Level <p>This research examined the academic enablers that help undergraduate students with hearing impairment (SWHI) succeed in higher education, addressing their unique obstacles. SWHI students have unique academic challenges that need tailored interventions and support services to improve their education. Promoting diversity and academic success in higher education requires understanding these obstacles and supports. A census sample of 30 SWHI undergraduates from a private institution was used for a quantitative study. Surveys in sign language were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze academic engagement, interpersonal skills, academic motivation, and study abilities. Academic Engagement demonstrated significant engagement with 56.1% asking test questions and 68.3% participating in classroom discussions. Interpersonal Skills showed active listening (78.0%) and good group work (75.6%). Academic motivation emphasized self-improvement (78.0%) and intrinsic curiosity (73.2%). 73.2% attended class without doing homework, indicating study skills issues. Future studies should examine academic diversity and accessibility initiatives.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Faisal Amjad, Dr. Almas Shoaib Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Fri, 05 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Integrated Significant Predictors Increasing the Overall Effectiveness and Usability of MOOC in Higher Education Institutions in Pakistan From Learners’ Perspectives: An Application of the UTAUT Model <p>The study intends to examine the integrated significant predictors that influence increased MOOC usability in higher education from learners’ perspectives in Pakistan. Past MOOC studies revealed that MOOCs may experience a decline in quality education due to disconnected robust integration of significant predictors by failing to integrate technology effectively in their teaching methods with outdated content design regarded by inadequate assessment mechanisms. This research utilized the UTAUT model to determine the significant impact influencing the accessibility of MOOCs. For quantitative method, fifty-one participants especially learners gave their initial responses from top universities for reliability analysis. Reliability analysis was applied, Cronbach’s Alpha findings of each construct ranging between 0.878–0.938, indicated evidently that the measurement instrument was acceptable. This study will contribute strong status to the educators and institutions to integrate high-quality content with effective instructional methods that cater to the aspirations of learners and align online education with international standards.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Masoomi Hifazat Ali Shah, Nasrullah Dharejo, Ikhtiar Ahmed Khoso Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Fri, 05 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Analysis of Reflective Practices for Professional Development of Prospective Teachers <p>Teachers’ professional growth is increasingly relying on the use of reflective practice in the modern day. Reflective practices are an important part of professional development for future teachers, according to this research. Three research objectives and seven research questions were formulated according to nature of research. Reflection in action, reflection on action, reflection for action, colleagues’ feedback, students’ feedback, peer observation, video audio recording, and portfolios are among the eight reflective practices that have been identified in prior study literature. To conduct this research, researchers used a quantitative method. Using questionnaires, 297 prospective teachers from five teacher training institutes of District Dera Ghazi Khan were surveyed to get quantitative data. SPSS version 22 was used to examine data. Frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation calculations were used to establish the results regarding the impact of reflective practices on the professional growth of future teachers. Reflective methods, according to survey participants, may help people recognize and accurate their professional errors. Prospective teachers’ Professional growth of prospective teachers’ may be accelerated through the use of both individual and group reflective activities. Teachers’ professional development may be greatly aided by a variety of methods, including reflection in action and on action, reflection for action, reflections based on input from students and colleagues, and reflections based on audio-video recordings of lessons and professional portfolios. The majority of prospective teachers were active in reflective activities, but they were not aware of the varied situations in which reflective practices were used.</p> Abeera Nasur, Hafiza Mudasra Ahad, Fatima Gul Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Sat, 06 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Educational Reforms: Perception of Primary School Teachers towards Online Training Program for Single National Curriculum (SNC) <p>Single National Curriculum (SNC) has been developed and implemented at primary school level (grade 1-5). Training has been done in different rounds and phases. The researcher wants to investigate the problems faced by primary school teachers in online training and the perception of primary school teachers regarding multiple aspects of training. Research questions were developed. Sample consisted of primary school teacher (PSTs) was chosen by using purposive sampling technique. An interview protocol was validated by the experts. Mock interview was conducted in order to check the credibility. Data was collected by taking interviews and then thematic analysis was done. The problems were mainly non-familiarity with technology, lack of face-to-face interaction, internet connectivity, and bandwidth issues. Continuous training, multiple teaching strategies, behavioral and moral development, and assessment strategies were emphasized. The study also holds importance for stakeholders as it recommends improvement of certain aspects of training including continuity of training.</p> Zainab Qamar, Iffat Khalil Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Examining the Impact of Digital Transformation on Exports of Pakistan <p>Exports are vital for emerging economies because they offer people and firms many more markets for their goods. In both developed and developing countries, exports as a catalyst for economic growth. This study examines the impact of digital transformation on exports to Pakistan. Global market changes are driven in large part by the digital transformation. By transforming digitally businesses and exports can become more competitive, efficient, and innovative. In this study, digital transformation is measured with individuals using the internet, fixed telephone subscriptions, and mobile cellular subscriptions. Time series data will be used for this study from 1990 to 2020. The stationarity of the variables was checked by Phillips Perron (PP) and Augmented Dicky-Fuller (ADF). In this study, all the variables were stationary at the first difference in the unit-root test. This study employed the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model for long and short-term relationships and short-term causalities among the variables. The findings of this research indicate a positive and significant relationship between digital transformation and exports. This study also provides comprehensive policies for policymakers to boost the nation’s exports. The government should act right now to develop more digital technologies to boost domestic output and services export needs. Effective digital policies should be established and novel approaches to digital transformation should be implemented.</p> Aamra Kanwal, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Ilyas Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Unveiling Vengeance: A Comparative Study of Revenge Dynamics in 'Haider' by Vishal Bhardwaj and 'Hamlet' by Shakespeare <p>This study examines the dynamics of revenge in Vishal Bhardwaj's film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Hamlet as Haider. The study focuses on the relevance of revenge in storytelling, spanning centuries and cultures. Both Shakespeare's plays explore psychological, moral, and societal complexities surrounding the desire for vengeance. This study is qualitative in nature. Textual and Cinematic analysis have been conducted and data has been taken from primary and secondary sources. However, "Haider" is set in the conflict-ridden Kashmir region, presenting a unique perspective on vengeance. The film juxtaposes the motives for vengeance between the main characters, highlighting Haider's personal and intricate connection to the injustices of the conflict. The film's vivid visuals and cinematic methods anchor the narrative in a modern context, and Haider's choice to prioritize truthfulness connects with the Indian audience's desire for peace in the Kashmir issue. "Haider" exemplifies the ability to adapt and provide new viewpoints on enduring subjects while exploring the intricacies of seeking retribution within a particular geopolitical setting. Hamlet' delves into the political intrigue of Elizabethan England, while 'Haider' explores Kashmir conflict's impact. Hamlet's revenge stems from existential dilemmas, contrasting with Haider's rooted in personal and political turmoil.</p> Nosheen Jaffar, Lubna Ali Mohammed, Muhammad Saleem Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Parent-Teacher Collaboration and its Effect on Student’s Achievement at Pre-School Level <p>This research study determines the parents and teachers’ collaboration in private schools and it effect on students’ achievement at the preschool level. Researcher conducted surveys and analyzed data from 500 private school teachers to understand the impact of collaboration between parents and teachers in this educational setting. This research aims to cater the increasing importance parents’ involvement with the teachers for the sake of their child achievement and parental involvement in educational setups. This research is quantitative in nature. Findings of the study reveals that a significant majority of private school teachers actively engage in collaboration with parents, emphasizing the importance of effective communication channels like meetings, emails, and parent-teacher conferences. Moreover, the research shows a positive and statistically significant link between strong parent-teacher collaboration and higher student achievement. This underscores the vital role these partnerships play in shaping student success in private schools. Moreover, outcomes contribute significantly to understanding the parents and teachers can work together effectively in private schools, offering valuable insights for educators, administrators, and policymakers. Researcher emphasize the importance of nurturing strong partnerships between educators and parents in private schools, ultimately improving the overall educational experience and student achievement, especially at the preschool level.</p> Ommama Ashfaq, Dr. Aisha Sami, Humaira Yousaf Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Tue, 09 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Impact of Using Web 2.0 Tools on Presentation Skills of Pakistani English Language Learners <p>The study aimed to examine the influence of Padlet on the English presentation abilities of Pakistani university-level English Language Learners (ELLs) and understand their perceptions of Web 2.0 applications. Contemporary classrooms are equipped with digital technology, with teachers utilizing Web 2.0 tools like Padlet to achieve learning objectives in ESL and EFL contexts. The study employed a quantitative, one-shot experimental design with 25 participants from a private university, collecting data through presentations from respondents against pre- and post-tests, rubrics, and questionnaires, and practicing using Padlet for a month. The study found that Padlet, a Web 2.0 tool, enhanced the presentation skills of novices, improved grades, and increased motivation, autonomy, and interest. The study suggests English language teachers should incorporate Web 2.0 Padlet application and fast-speed internet services to enhance presentation skills and save time for learners, while also addressing connectivity issues.</p> Muhammad Zahid, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Anwar, Dr. Nazir Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Sat, 13 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Effects of Commercialization on Microclimate of Lahore: Contextual Investigation of Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore <p>Rapid urbanization has led to an extreme environment, especially in cities like Lahore that is overpopulated and overuse of land resulting in accelerating temperature. The research aims to investigate the commercialization impact on the microclimate of Karim Block, Lahore, which is being over-commercialized, and to propose a strategy to mitigate rising temperature from land use conversion. Theoretical review, policy analysis, ENVI Erdas Imagine, and GIS satellite imagery analysis are conducted to assess Land Surface Temperature from 2016 to 2023. It was revealed that the temperature has increased significantly due to land use change policies, elimination of green infrastructure, and traffic congestion. It highlights the importance of reclassifying land use, incorporating green infrastructure, and mitigating climate change impact. It is recommended to incorporate green roofing to reduce temperature significantly, reclassify Karim Block’s land use by prioritizing green infrastructure, and develop future commercialization policies that cater to environmental susceptibility and promote pedestrianization.</p> Hira Binte Iftikhar, Aleena Sohail, Faiqa Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Sat, 13 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Conceptualization of Social Capital in Mental Health Context among Adolescents and Adults <p>The present study aimed to explore the concept of social capital concerning mental health among adolescents and adults. The glue that holds civilizations together has been described as social capital. According to Putnam (2002), social capital refers to the characteristics of social organization, such as norms, networks, and social trust that enable individuals to coordinate and cooperate with others for their mutual advantage. The present study employed a qualitative inquiry, data were collected from mental health professionals and social capital researchers (N=14) by following semi-structured interviews. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data. Findings revealed Four overarching topics that emerged from experts’ views: the impact of social capital on mental health; envisioning of social capital; social capital in Pakistan; and Pakistani youth and social capital. In the future, data must be collected from adults, adolescents, and persons with mental disabilities by following different research designs. The present study would help generate indigenous tools to measure social capital.</p> Prof. Dr. Rabia Khawar, Sabeen Shamsher, Dr. Rizwana Amin Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Examining Students' Perceptions, Experiences, and Ethical Concerns about Using ChatGPT for Academic Support: A Phenomenological Study <p>University students have used ChatGPT extensively to complete their academic tasks since its release in November 2022. The objective of the paper was to explore university students’ perceptions regarding the role of ChatGPT in enhancing their academic performance and their concerns regarding the ethical and social implications of using ChatGPT in their academic tasks. The research design of the current qualitative study was phenomenology. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with eight participants selected purposefully from a private-sector university in Lahore. We used NVivo software (version 14) for data analysis. Clarke and Braun’s (2013) guide for thematic analysis was followed to read, review, and identify the codes, patterns, and themes. The analysis revealed that the majority of respondents believed that ChatGPT is a very effective tool that offers practical support to them in generating innovative ideas for solving academic problems. Students also showed serious concerns about the lack of clarity and policy guidelines for effectively using ChatGPT in writing their academic tasks. Based on the study findings, we suggest universities should develop and enforce a policy clarifying the limitations and scope of ChatGPT.</p> Faiza Shafqat, Amjad Islam Amjad Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Mon, 15 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 Parents’ Perception about the Pre-vocational Skills of their Children with Mild Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities <p>Skills are essential for people with exceptional needs. They are able to uncover their natural talent. Pre-vocational services may be provided to people with IDDs in an effort to prepare them for the workforce before they enter the broad field of vocational skill training (Kirono, 2013). The objective of the existing research was to explore the needs of the Pre-vocational skills of the Persons with Mild Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (MIDDs. Philosophical research paradigm of current study was quantitative. Data were composed through a structured survey questionnaire with five points multiple directional scale for parents of the persons with MIDDs. Sample of the study was consisted of 151 parents of MIDDs studying in Government Special Education and training institutes of Punjab. Major findings of the research showed that functional academic skills were assessed to be the most problematic pre-vocational skills of MIDDs. The study recommended that persons with MIDDs should be taught according to the individualized educational program.</p> Razia Sultana, Dr. Faisal Anis Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Thu, 18 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500 The Speech Repair Strategies: An Analysis of Same Turn Self-Repair (STSR) in an Interview <p>The article aims to explored turn repair strategies by the speakers during a conversation. Turn taking is an important aspect of conversation analysis research. Focus of this study is limited to self-repair strategies used by the speakers during conversation. Data for the study is as interview by Joseph Downing, an American painter. The study follows mix method research that is a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Theoretical background of the study is Zsuzsanna Németh’s (2012) idea of self-repair strategies used by the speakers to achieve their interactional goals. The results prove that the speakers use STSR strategies of recycling, restating and replacing while they are involved in interviews and they are facilitated by listeners to use these strategies and to make their speech clear and correct. The study recommends the analysis of self-repair strategies in other conversational context for discovering the socio-cultural aspects behind the repair of the speech.</p> Dr. Shazia Ayyaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan Social Sciences Review Fri, 19 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0500