Food Insecurity in the Western Himalaya: the Changing Pattern of Agro-Pastoral Activities and its Impact on Saif-Ul-Malook National Park, Pakistan
Keywords:Food Insecurity, Livelihood Strategy, National Park, Saif-Ul-Malook, Poverty
This study explores the impact of poverty, and the changing pattern of agro-pastoral activities on Saif-ul-Malook National Park. For this purpose, data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. However, this study is mainly based on primary data. Primary data were collected from field survery through questionnaire survery, foucs group discussion and interview in August/September, 2018. A total number of 150 households were interviewed as a representative sample through random sampling technique. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive, inferential statistical techniques and cartographic methods. In order to check the econometric problems (i.e. heteroscedasticity and multicollinerity) in the assumption of ordinary least square (OLS) model, different diagnostics tests were employed and result of all the tests show the absence of any econometric problems in the model. The result of multi-regression shows that female-headed households of the study area are the ‘poorest of the poor’ and are more vulnerable and prone to poverty than men and face more barriers to lifting themselves out of poverty. This study indicates that agricultural transformation and cash crop cultivation have negative impact on poverty and improved food and livelihood security, ultimately improving the living standard of mountain people. Furthermore, it is inferred that the bio-physical environment of the Saif-ul-Malook national park is deteriorating and its sustainability calls for an immediate action to reduce the ever increasing human and livestock pressure on park resources.
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